Pipelines & Underground Systems

Pipelines and Underground Systems

Corrosion is a leading cause of storage tank and piping failures. These systems often carry and store products including dry gas, wet gas, crude oil with entrained/emulsified water, and processed liquids.

Corrosion-related costs for monitoring, replacing, and maintaining gathering and transmission pipelines are estimated at $7 billion annually in the U.S. alone, and another $5 billion for gas distribution, according to recent NACE International studies such as the 2016 NACE IMPACT study and the 2002 “Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States” study.

Both above and underground storage tanks are subject to the EPA’s Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule, and the EPA’s Energy Policy Act of 2005 contains specific corrosion provisions for underground storage tanks. The U.S. EPA requires protective coating and cathodic protection to all buried piping installed or replaced after August 2002, while the U.S. Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) regulates oil and gas pipelines, including minimum federal safety standards, regulations for transmission of liquids, and maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for oil and gas pipeline systems.

NACE SP0169 and NACE SP0502 are incorporated by reference in 49 CFR. These standards are provided free of charge (downloadable) by NACE to those who must comply with the regulations. NACE SP0169-2013, plus SP0285-2011, TM0101-2012, TM0497-2012, and RP0193-2001, are also incorporated by reference in New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Part 613 of Title 6 of the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York (NYCRR), and are provided free of charge to those who must comply with them.

As a leading resource for the oil and gas industry, NACE International's Pipeline Advisory Council provides insight to the NACE Board of Directors on industry needs to increase awareness of corrosion issues.

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Books

Corrosion and Its Control: An Introduction to the Subject, Second Edition

This edition of this classic text is based on notes used by the authors for more than a decade in their course, The Corrosion and Protection of Metals.

Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

This book provides general coverage of the wide field of corrosion control. It is designed to help readers being initiated into corrosion work and presents each corrosion process or control procedure in the most basic terms.

Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminum Alloys in Seawater (EFC 50)

Copper and aluminum alloys are widely used in marine engineering in areas such as pipelines, storage tanks, ships' hulls, and cladding for offshore structures.

CUI Mechanism and Prevention

CUI(Corrosion Under Insulation) is worldwide problem. CUI on carbon steel occurs with water and oxygen and is accelerated by iron rust halogen ion and the conductivity. That mechanism is analyzed more quantitatively to understand the degree of corrosion influence. By using this mechanism the author applied to the actual plants to find it is correct.But some irregular corrosion occurred and is considered why it occurs by means of the investigation of the corrosion samples.

Fundamentals of Designing for Corrosion Control: A Corrosion Aid for the Designer

This book examines factors weighed in the design phase of a project for preventing equipment repair or replacement due to corrosion.

Solution to Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) with Three Layered CUI Control and CUI Warning Systems

CUI is the most expensive problem in the corrosion history due to their highly corrosive conditions and the limited visual access by thermal jackets. In general CUI is caused by water leakages from the thermal jackets. Visual inspections of steel pipes and tanks by removing the thermal jackets are most reliable way to find CUI locations at present.

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Standards:

SP0298-2007 (formerly RP0298), Sheet Rubber Linings for Abrasion and Corrosion Service
SP0490-2007 (formerly RP0490), Holiday Detection of Fusion-Bonded Epoxy External Pipeline Coating of 250 to 760 µm (10 to 30 mil)
SP0188-2006 (formerly RP0188), Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of New Protective Coatings on Conductive Substrates
RP0399-2004, Plant-Applied, External Coal Tar Enamel Pipe Coating Systems: Application, Performance, and Quality Control
SP0185-2007 Extruded Polyolefin Resin Coating Systems with Soft Adhesives for Underground or Submerged Pipe
TM0104-2004, Offshore Platform Ballast Water Tank Coating System Evaluation
SP0109-2009 Field Application of Bonded Tape Coatings for External Repair, Rehabilitation, and Weld Joints on Buried Metal Pipelines
RP0602-2002 Field-Applied Coal Tar Enamel Pipe Coating Systems: Application, Performance, and Quality Control-2002
RP0402-2002, Field-Applied Fusion-Bonded Epoxy (FBE) Pipe Coating Systems for Girth Weld Joints: Application, Performance, and Quality Control
RP0303-2003, Field-Applied Heat-Shrinkable Sleeves for Pipelines: Application, Performance, and Quality Control
SP0892-2007-SG (formerly RP0892), Coatings and Linings over Concrete for Chemical Immersion and Containment Service
SP0394-2013 (formerly RP0394), "Application, Performance, and Quality Control of Plant-Applied Single Layer Fusion-Bonded Epoxy External Pipe Coating”
ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2015, Petroleum and natural gas industries—Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production